Glassworks - Please also look at the Glassworks Map!
Index: Where does it come from?
BACCARAT Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat, in Baccarat,
Meurthe-et-Moselle, and Paris.
Founded in 1764 in Baccarat sur Meurthe, about 30 miles southwest of Nancy in Lorraine. The rise of
the glassworks began in 1816 when Gabriel d'Artigue bought it. He had been director first of the neighbouring St. Louis glassworks (which his father owned) and then
director and owner of a glass manufacture in the north of France, which fell to Belgium after the defeat of Napoleon I. He brought with him dozens of skilled glass-workers and a
long experience in making crystal glass.
Under his three successors (from 1823 on) the company expanded and it was then that the technology
of pressing glass must have been developed; at least we know that an invention which was helpful in the new technology - the use of compressed air to support the blowing of the
glassmaker was patented in 1824 (the Robinet pipe). Baccarat became the manufacturer for the rising bourgeoisie and began to collect prizes at exhibitions for the quality of its glass
and glassware. At the beginning of the 1830s cooperation with St. Louis started which lasted well into the 1850s. Both had their products sold by a Parisian wholesaler “ Barlier,
Launay & Cie, later Launay Hautin & Cie and moulds were either exchanged or the same moulds made for both companies.
In 1860 Baccarat registered its trademark, a wineglass, a carafe and a goblet. A label bearing the
drawing was pasted on the finished product. Since about 1875 the pressed products were provided with the name 'BACCARAT' in relief. In 1873 a German journalist called Baccarat
"the largest and most famous glassworks not only of France but worldwide." They are certainly the most famous yet.
Two museums, one in Paris, the other at Baccarat, and several catalogues of Launy Hautin , two of
them easily accessible through "Pressglas-Korrespondenz", document the pressed glass production of the 19th century fairly well. A catalogue of 1893 has been reprinted
BERNSDORF Aktiengesellschaft für Glasfabrikation, vormals Gebrüder Hoffmann
in Bernsdorf (Oberlausitz),
about 20 miles north of Dresden in Saxony. Founded in 1871 as Glasfabrik Gebrüder Hoffmann in
Bernsdorf. First, production of chimneys and shades for oil lamps and electric lamps, later pressed glass for the household and for inns and restaurants. In the 1930s one of the
greatest producers of pressed glass in Germany. Its products were inexpensive, the design was unambitious, mainly imitating cut glass.
Situated in the Soviet occupied zone it was nationalized after WWII and produced under the name of
Ankerglas until 2000, when it was shut down. (An anchor â€“Ger. 'Anker'- was its trademark since 1898).
BROCKWITZ Brockwitzer Glasfabrik AG, Brockwitz bei Dresden.
Founded in 1903, nationalized after WW II, shut down in 1990. When the company registered its
first trademark in 1904 its list of products ran the whole gamut of household ware, drinking glasses and lamp shades. In 1914 they took over one of severalÂ glassworks in
Ottendorfwhich, however, was closed in 1929, when the company came into financial trouble. Production came to a halt and in 1932 the company was taken over by an American group of
investors (General Mortgage Credits Corp., New Jersey). The catalogues in the 20s and 30s display the usual cut glass imitations with a spot of Art-Deco thrown in.
BURTLES Burtles, Tate and Co., Poland Street Glassworks, Oldham Road, Manchester.
Founded in 1858. Produced pressed glass mainly. Well known in the 1890s for their 'Topaz
Opalescent' ware which was similar to Davidson's 'Pearline' design. Taken over in 1924.
DAVIDSON George Davidson and Co., Gateshead.
Founded in 1867 in Gateshead, Tyneside, close to Newcastle. One of the great names in the history of
pressed glass in Britain. It started with producing glass chimneys but later added all sorts of pressed household ware. In the 1880s Davidson purchased the stock of moulds of the
Neville Glassworks as well as those ofÂ W. H. Heppell and Co. and Thomas Gray and Co., which made their stock of patterns "one of the most extensive and complete in the
trade" as an advert in the Pottery Gazette in 1884 said. Their most famous design was the Pearline glass made in two colours: blue and yellow. It was patented on Dec 7, 1889: The
pressed object was taken out of the mould and reheated. The parts heated strongest became milky and/or opaque, the rest remained translucent.
The glassworks closed in the 1950's.
EHRENFELD Rheinische Glashütten AG, Ehrenfeld.
Near Cologne. Founded in 1864, the glassworks became famous in the 1880's and 90's for their
re-introduction of old forms and techniques (influence of the Arts and Crafts Movement). For some time around the turn of the century well known artists and designers worked for the
company. The production of pressed glass must have begun in the 1870's. Their first pressed object "a pressed glass plate" , "production number 1" was registered
on "August 19, 1876, at 11:45 in the morning".
The glassworks were shut down in 1931.
Fenner Glashütte, vorm. Raspiller & Co., Fenne bei Luisenthal a. d. Saar. (Near Saarbrücken).
Founded in 1813. There were several owners, before, presumably in the early twenties, a member of
the Raspiller family bought the glassworks. The Raspillers were a family of glassblowers who came originally from Tyrol/Austria. In the 1780's a Raspiller became co-owner of a small
glass factory in Soldatenthal in Lorraine/France. Members of the family play a role, some time or other, in the glassworks of VallÃ©rysthal, Val St. Lambert and Wadgassen as well.
InÂ the 80 years in which the Raspillers owned Fenne glassworks it expanded considerably and and there were display rooms as far away as Leipzic and Berlin. The production of
bottles of all kinds was an important part of their business as well as raw glass for Dreibrunnen glassworks, which turned it into watch glasses and other technical glass-products. The
production of pressed glass may have started in the 1870's. Economic and financial difficulties around the turn of the century almost brought the closing down of the factory.
However, new investors were found: the owners of the glassworks in Dreibrunnen (Fr. Troisfontaines), Leo Hirsh and Leo Hammel. They took over in 1903, and in 1909 they merged their
two establishments to "United Glassworks of Fenne and Dreibrunnen, Hirsh & Hammel".Â After WW I the Saar region became part of the French customs territory; so Fenne
had to adapt its production to the French market. They did so successfully it seems with modern equipment and new buildings. In 1934 Fenne separated from Dreibrunnen and became
"Saarglas-A.G." At the beginning of WW II, machinery and workers were evacuated and production was never taken up again.
GREENER Angus and Greener, Wear Flint Glass Works, Sunderland.
Founded in 1858 by Henry Greener and James Angus. Between 1869 (death of James Angus) and 1884,
the company's name was James Greener, since 1885, Greener & Co after being sold to a Newcastle chemical merchant, James A. Jobling. The glassworks produced all
sorts of glass in different colours for the household as well as for commercial useÂ (e.g. lamp glass). As far as pressed glass is concerned they are best known for their
commemorative pieces. Around the turn of the century business was not so good and the owner was not interested in investing much in his company. Things became better when his nephew
became manager in 1902, and with the production of PYREX since 1921 (for the markets outside the U.S. and Canada) the company began to flourish. Only then was the old name dropped and
the company's name changed into James A. Jobling & Co, Ltd. In the 30's the glassworks acquired a reputation for their fine hand-pressed glass in the Art Deco style.
In 1973 the firm was taken over by Corning and , in 1975, renamed into Corning Ltd. Greener was one
of the few British glassworks that had a trademark, in fact, they had two. The first one, a lion with a star in its paw, was registered in 1876. When Jobling bought the firm in
1885 another lion was introduced: it now held a battleaxe.
KASTRUP KastrupGlasvaerk, Kastrup near Copenhagen,
founded in 1847 as a subsidiary to Holmegaards Glasvaerker (which were founded in 1823 in the
southwest corner of Sjaeland). At the beginning KastrupÂ produced bottles mainly; in 1867 tableware was added. When theÂ Â owner of the glasshouses wanted to modernize
Holmegaard he sold Kastrup in 1873. In the following years Kastrup was very successful and began to control several smaller Danish glassworks. It seems that in this period the glass
pressing technology was introduced.
After 1907 there was some sort of cooperation and division of labour among the Danish glasshouses
(except Holmegaard) with Kastrup leading. At last, after surviving the depression and two world wars, the two competitors threw forces together and re-united under the name of
Kastrup og Holmegaards Glasvaerker in 1965. They are doing well to date.
KÖPENICK Marienhütte Köpenick in Köpenick
(then) near Berlin. A smaller glasshouse which does no longer exist. Founded in 1869, sold
in 1873 and since then called "Marienhütte". Around the turn of the century some 170 people worked there producing hollow glassware mainly, later pressed glass as well.
Production came to a halt in 1921 when the glasshouse was no longer profitable and the machinery had become antiquated. Work was taken up again in 1924, but in 1932 the factory was
closed for good. No catalogure has surfaced so far, but a beer mug with the trade mark, a six-pointed star, might be found once in a while at a Berlin flea market. Two advertisements in
a trade journal from the last period are known.
MALKY Malky & Jahncke, Deuben
near Dresden. Founded in 1884. Not much is known about this company. Pressed glass for the household
with its trademark - an edelweiss can be found rather frequently at Berlin flea markets. So it seems that its output was high before and after WW I. The trade mark was first registered
in December 1906, registration in a slightly different form was renewed in 1920, but now by Gebr. Malky.
In 1914 the design for a beer mug (in Art Deco style) was registered, in 1921 another Art Deco design was registered, headquarters now being in Freithal (a few miles farther south). Both Malky and Jahncke, together or separately, appear several times in the registers of companies as co-owners of glassworks in the Lausitz region.
MEISENTHAL Burgun, Schverer & Co., Verreries de Meisenthal.
Founded in 1711 in Meisenthal in the French province of Lorraine near the French-German border.
Between 1871 and 1918 the area was annected to Germany. Only one building, now housing a very fine glass museum, has survived the demolition after the shut down of the glassworks in
1969. Like the Raspillers and Stengers, the Burguns and Shverers (originally Schwrer) come from families of glassmakers whose names appear, again and again, in the annals of the
glassworks of this region. Meisenthal is best known for its cooperation with mile GallÃ©. He worked there as a trainee in 1866/7, and between 1885 and 1896 the company manufactured
and sold under its own trade mark art glass objects designed by him. It was well prepared for this job: the quality of the crystal glass was excellent, the glassworkers were highly
qualified, and the refining department had been experimenting with new techniques for years, and last but not least, Meisenthal now belonging to Germany was a gate to the German market.
During that time there was also a close contact to Vallerysthal, many designs are similar and moulds are said to have been exchanged. Art glass, however, was only a small part of the
company's production and it seems to have been given up after 1903 under a new director.
Glassware for the household and for inns and restaurant had always been its main line of production.
When the technology of pressing glass was introduced is not known. The first known catalogue (1883) shows designs and forms of pressed glass similar to those we know from Vallerysthal
: there is a sugar in the form of a tortoise. Another object which may have been produced at that time and still appears in a 1907 catalogue a swan flowerholder bears a striking
resemblance to the Burtles, Tate and Co. swan registered in 1885. And lastly, the designs for three pressed or press-moulded articles were registered in 1888 and 1889 in Germany with
low production numbers (20 and 21). The period between WWI and WW II marked the peak of pressed glass production. The glassworks were shut down in 1969.
MOLINEAUX Molineaux, Webb and Co., Ancoats, Manchester.
(Sometimes spelled Molineux.)Founded in 1827, the company is best known for its pressed glass.
They began registering their designs in 1864, the first or one of the first ones being a Greek key pattern, partly frosted. Production came to an end in 1927 (another source says 1936).
[There is a catalogue in one of the Berlin archives whose title page reads "Wholesale Export.
Crystal- and glassware manufacture Mühlhaus & Comp. Berlin S., Stallschreiber-Strasse 27/28 ...". Since some of the words are spelled the old way a spelling reform came
into force in 1901 one could date back the catalogue to the 1890s. According to the Berlin register of companies "a commercial company" was established in 1875 in Berlin;
"area of business: glass." Between 1876 and 1900, Mühlhaus and Co. are listed in the classified directory of Berlin sometimes as "wholesalers" sometimes as
"manufacturers", or both. Where they could have produced is unknown, production in Berlin is unlikely. There is one piece in their catalogue, a small plate named
"Cora", which appears under the same name in the 1894 catalogue of Villeroy and Boch in 5 different sizes as part of a larger "service".]
Noelle & von Campe Glashütten, Brückfeld b. Fürstenberg a. d. Weser.
So far I haven't found much about the glassworks. They were founded in 1874 and registered
three trade marks in Oct. 1875, one being an anchor; registration of the latter was renewed in 1898, and in 1910 they introduced a new trade mark, a steering wheel. They must have
produced pressed glass from the beginning: the registration entries list as products: "White [i.e. colourless] and coloured hollow glassware, pressed glass and hardened glass."
[To be continued].